Reducing the concentration of fine dust when driving mine workings with the use of explosive energy

V. Golinko1, D. Saveliev1, I. Cheberiachko1, D. Pustovoi1

1Dnipro University of Technology, Dnipro, Ukraine

Coll. res. pap. nat. min. univ. 2019, 57:169-177


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Purpose.Improve the method of reducing dust formation, deposition and binding of finely dispersed (with a dust fraction less than 10 mkm), the most silicose and pneumoconiosolone dust fraction, which has a large amount of silica-enriched products of rocks destruction in the bottomhole at the drilling and blasting method of mining works.

The methodology.Consists in the development of new rational technological parameters of the excavation of mine workings,aimed at chemical binding and deposition of fine dust, reducing the content in the ventilation stream of toxic explosive products.

Findings.Designed a bottom hole production scheme with the location of drilled holes and the cutting structure, the layout and design of cutting, firing, auxiliary, contouring charges and explosive charge in the compensation holes, placement scheme in the mine working water barriers and recording equipment, from the places of intensive pilot hole on the contact "explosive-rock". It is established that under the influence of high temperatures of explosive gases an aqueous solution of slaked limestone, located in inert gaps (ampoules), turns a mixture of calcium oxide and calcium carbonate, which, when interacting with fine quartz particles, form calcium silicates in the form of large rapidly falling aggregates.Registration of dust concentration indicators in dirty air generation is based on the optical absorption method of fixing individual dust particles. The use of heels, which expands in boreholes and surfactants to soften rocks during drilling and blasting operations, improves the safety of penetration by eliminating kills and canopies on the surface of the face, carries out chemical bonding and fine dust precipitation, reduces the content of toxic blast products in the ventilation stream and improving the sanitary and hygienic working conditions of staff.

The originality.The change in the mechanism of destruction of the coal mass using surfactants helps to reduce silicosis and pneumoconiosis dangerous and concentration of dust in the mine workings, which is formed during blasting operations, by reducing the amount of fine fraction to 10 microns and the rapid sedimentation of dust particles under the action of gravity.

Practical implications.The application of the proposed method of penetration of mine workings in strained rocks with the simultaneous use of measures to reduce dust in the mine working surface will increase the rate of penetration, the efficiency of the explosion, reduce the unit costs of explosives, reduce the amount of drilling, improve loading efficiency -transport equipment and sanitary conditions of the miners.

Keywords:working conditions, fine dust, silicosis danger, surfactants, drilling and blasting, rock destruction.


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